1. The thyroid gland is located nearA) the pharynxB) the larynxC) the kidneysD) the bronchiE) the falciform ligament2.)

1. The thyroid gland is located near

A) the pharynx

B) the larynx

C) the  kidneys

D) the bronchi

E) the falciform ligament

2.)  Removal of the thyroid gland could result in removal of the parathyroids also and resulting imbalance of ___________  levels within the body.

A) Magnesium

B) Sodium

C) Calcium

D) Potassium

E) Chloride

3.  Endocrine disorders are generally classified as

A) hypersecretory

B) hyposecretory

C) both A & B

D) environmental

E) gender-based

4. Which of the following is NOT an endocrine disorder?

A) Diabetes insipidus

B) Addison’s disease

C) acromegaly

D) goiter


5.  In the case of a _____________________ the spinal cord is completely severed.

A) spinal laceration

B) spinal transection

C) spinal compression

D) spinal concussion

E) spinal shock

6.)  Ulnar palsy and sciatic compression are both examples of..

A) peripheral neuropathies

B) regional (typically temporary) loss of sensory and motor function

C) both A & B

D) thyroid deficiency

E) cranial nerve damage

7.)  A reflex is a rapid, automatic and involuntary motor response restricted to the

A) the spinal cord

B) the sympathetic chain ganglia

C) the cerebrum

D) the medulla oblongata

E) the diencephalon

8.)  Most nervous tract decussation occurs in the

A) pons

B) cerebellum

C) medulla

D) diencephalon

E) A & C

9)  The relationship between the sensory input from eyes and their perception at the level of the brain is

A) ipsilateral

B) contralateral

C) both ipsilateral and contralateral

D) neither ipsilateral or contralateral

E) endocrine

10)  The _______________ and ______________ connect the ________________ and ________________ of the right and left lobes of the brain.

A) massa intermedia/corpus callosum/diencephalon/cerebrum

B) corpus callosum/diencephalon/cerebrum/massa intermedia

C) diencephalon/massa intermedia/cerebrum/corpus callosum

D) massa intermedia/diencephalon/corpus callosum/cerebrum

E) cerebrum/diencephalon/massa intermedia/corpus callosum

11)  Which of the following is true of ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)?

A) motor control of skeletal muscle is lost at the disease progresses

B) cognitive processes are compromised as the disease progresses

C) it is common in young children

D) sensory neurons are affected

E) the disease is common

12.  Which of the following apply to the ANS?

A) afferent pathways of the ANS originate at visceral receptors

B) efferent pathways of the ANS connect to visceral effectors

C) it is functionally divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

D) there are anatomical differences between the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

E)  all of the above apply

14.The movement of CSF around the brain and spinal cord is facilitated by

A) ciliated ependymal cells

B) ciliated astrocytes

C) Schwann cells

D) microglial cells

E) oligodendrocytes

15.Which of the following are associated with concussions?

A) transient confusion

B) loss of consciousness

C) abnormal mental status

D) some degree of amnesia

E) all of the above

16. Which of the following is not considered a TBI (traumatic brain injury)?

A) concussion

B) epidural hemorrhage

C) subdural hemorrhage

D) painful migraine headache

E) aneurysm

17.  Which of the following accurately describes the basal nuclei?

A) paired masses of gray matter

B) found deep with the cerebral hemispheres

C) embedded within white matter

D) inferior to the floor of each lateral ventricle

E) all of the above are true of the basal nuclei

18.  Alzheimer’s disease is associated with

A) progressive memory loss

B) impaired cerebral function

C) impaired memory and forgetfulness

D) a change in personality

E) all of the above

19.  Which of the following results from viral inflammation of the facial nerve and is characterized by temporary facial paralysis?

A) Tic Douloureux

B) Bell’s Palsy

C) ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)

D) MS (multiple sclerosis)

E) Addison’s disease

20. Which of the following are associated with disruption of normal autonomic influence (specifically sympathetic)  over viscera and other tissues?

A) Raynaud’s syndrome

B) Cushing’s disease


D) Acromegaly

E) Alzheimer’s disease

21.  The parasympathetic division of the ANS

A) innervates visceral structures serviced by the cranial nerves III, VII, XI and X

B) increases smooth muscle activity along the digestive tract

C) constricts the respiratory passageways

D) reduces heart rate and force of heart contraction

E) all of the above are true of the parasympathetic division of the ANS

22.  The sympathetic division of the ANS

A) mobilizes energy reserves and accelerates the breakdown of stored muscle glycogen

B) increases activity in the cardiovascular and respiratory centers of the pons and medulla oblongata

C) utilizes a bilateral chain of ganglia found outside the vertebral column

D) innervates the medulla of the adrenal glands

E) all of the above are true of the sympathetic division of the ANS

23. The sensory receptors for visual and auditory stimuli are more complex than those for other types of special senses because..

A) both stimuli are sensed in wave form and transforming that stimulus into an electrochemical impulse is a complex process

B) their position on the post-central gyrus has little surface area associated with it

C) the impulses traveling from these sensory receptors have to find their way to the cerebellum

D) they do not decussate

E) they do not travel through white matter within the cerebral hemispheres

24.  Sensory messages coming from the nose and mouth are perceived within

A) the prefrontal lobe

B) the occipital love

C) the insula

D) the temporal lobe

E) the diencephalon

25. What are the four main classes of tissues found in the human body?

A) muscle/epithelial/reproductive/nervous

B) cardiac/reproductive/endocrine/epithelial

C) connective/epithelial/nervous/muscle

D) endocrine/connective/epithelial/cardiovascular

E) lymphoid/connective/epithelial/muscle

26.  Most of the viscera in the human body is found within..

A) dorsal body cavities

B) ventral body cavities

C) the pelvic cavity

D) the thoracic cavity

E) the cranial cavity

27.  Cavities continuous with the outside of the body are covered with..

A) serous membranes

B) cutaneous membranes38

C) mucous membranes

D) synovial membranes

E) rugae

28.  On a regenerative continuum __________________ tissue is highly regenerative while ___________________ tissue is not at all.

A) muscle /nervous

B) epithelial /muscle

C) connective/epithelial

D) epithelial/connective

E) epithelial/nervous

29. The epidermis receives oxygen via ______________ from blood vessels found in the __________________.

A) active transport/stratum corneum

B) osmosis/dermis

C) diffusion/ dermis

D) filtration/hypodermis

E) diffusion/hypodermis

30. Which of the following is true of scar tissue?

A) it is inflexible and fibrous

B) it is non-cellular

C) it reinforces area of tissue damage

D) it will not allow for the original function associated with the tissue in which it forms

E) all of the above are true of scar tissue

31. Which of the following are true of the human skeleton?

A) it allows for voluntary movement by providing leverage for muscle contraction

B) it is the site of blood cell production

C) it protects vital organs

D) it is a place of mineral and adipose storage

E) all of the above are true of the human skeleton

32.  Long bones are associated with the __________________ and form via _____________________ ossification.

A) axial/intramembranous

B) appendicular/endochondral

C) axial/endochondral

D) pelvis/endochondral

E) pectoral girdle/intramembranous

33.The ocular orbit consists of _________ bones, one of which, the _____________ bone, is called the “keystone” bone of the cranium.

A) 8/ethmoid

B) 14/maxilla

C) 9/zygomatic

D) 7/sphenoid

E) 10/ temporal

34.Foramina and fissures allow ______________ to penetrate or pass through bone.

A) nerves

B) blood vessels

C) hormones

D) A & B

E) tendons

35.The three types of muscle tissue are

A) voluntary/skeletal/cardiac

B) involuntary/smooth/cardiac

C) cardiac/skeletal/smooth

D) smooth/cardiac/involuntary

E) voluntary/nervous/cardiac

36. The glenohumeral, hip, knee, and elbow joint are all considered

A) multiaxial, freely movable synovial joints

B) diarthrotic, freely movable synovial joints

C) biaxial, gomphotic joints

D) synarthrotic synovial joints

E) fibrous, freely movable joints

37.  Which of the following are associated with synovial joints?

A) intracapsular ligaments/hyaline cartilage/bursae

B) areolar connective tissue/elastic cartilage/synovial fluid

C) DICT joint capsules/fibrocartilage/extracapsular ligaments

D) DRCT joint capsules/fibrocartilage/bursae

E) A & C

38. The ________________ is the functional unit of _______________ muscle(s).

A) sarcomere/smooth

B) sarcoplasmic reticulum/skeletal

C) sarcomere/skeletal

D) sarcomere/skeletal and cardiac

E) neuromuscular junction/smooth, skeletal, and cardiac

39.  Muscle names include references to their ….

A) orientation of fibers

B) primary function

C) shape and size

D) origin or insertion

E) all of the above

40. Muscles of the axial skeleton  _____________________ and work together to ________________________.

A) are flat and sheet-like / movement of the appendages

B)  are wide in the middle with tapered tendinous attachments/ move air into and out of the lungs

C) are flat and sheet-like / alter pressure in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

D) insert under the skin of the face/ create facial expression

E) C & D

41. Skeletal muscle fibers are of three types and distinct from one another based on

A) size and color

B) contraction speed and fatigue resistance

C) myoglobin content and capillary supply

D) density of mitochondria and substrates used for ATP generation

E) all of the above

42. Which of the following are important to understanding how skeletal muscle contracts and generates force?

A) Sliding Filament Theory

B) Cross-Bridge Cycle

C) anatomy of the neuromuscular junction

D) ACh action at the synaptic cleft and development of an AP (action potential) at the post-synaptic membrane

E) all of the above

43.  Which of the following is NOT true regarding the pelvic and/or pectoral girdles.

A) girdle musculature stabilizes the ball-in-socket joint of the shoulder and hip

B) they have the same degree of mobility

C) the glenohumeral joint is the most frequently displaced joint in the human body

D) the clavicle is the only bony connection between the arms and axial skeleton

E) the acetabulum stabilizes the head of the femur to a greater degree than the scapula stabilizes the head of the humerus

44. Which of the following accurately describe the function of the abdominal girdle?

A) the girdle (when strong) lifts the abdominal viscera up and back toward the spinal column

B) a strong abdominal girdle can reduce the likelihood of abnormal spinal curvature (e.g. lordosis)

C) when the abdominal girdle is strong, back injuries are less likely to occur

D) a strong abdominal girdle helps center body weight in the lumbar portion of the spinal column

E) all of the above

45.  When ________________ muscles contract forcefully while holding one’s breath, also known as the _________________ maneuver, pressure in the __________________ cavity can increase dramatically causing ____________ of viscera.

A) thoracic/Valsalva/cranial/herniation

B) abdominal/Valsalva/abdominal/varicosity

C) pelvic/reflex/abdominal/vasodilation

D) abdominal/Valsalva/abdominopelvic/herniation

E) ventilation/hyperventilation/thoracic/reflux

46. The relationship between the muscles of the lower arm and leg relative to the hands and feet is:

A) intrinsic

B) synergistic

C) extrinsic

D) antagonistic

E) there is no relationship between them

47. The two organ systems responsible for control and maintenance of the human body are:

A)  CNS and PNS

B)  CNS and endocrine

C)  endocrine and ANS

D) ANS and PNS

E)  lymphoid and endocrine

48.  All sensory stimuli are received at ____________ and travel to the ________________ via __________________ pathways.

A) effectors/cerebellum/afferent

B) receptors/cerebrum/afferent

C) receptors/cerebellum/efferent

D) effectors/cerebrum/afferent

E) receptors/diencephalon/efferent

49. Intentional skeletal muscle movement originates at the _______________ and travels to _________________ via __________________ pathways.

A) prefrontal cortex/receptors/afferent

B) precentral gyrus of the primary motor cortex/skeletal muscle effectors/efferent

C) postcentral gyrus of the primary sensory cortex/ visceral effectors/ efferent

D) occipital lobe/skeletal effectors/afferent

E) temporal lobe/skeletal muscle effectors/efferent


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