Answer the following Questions or Statements as either True or False
Questions from Chapter 11 Mendel and the Gene Idea
1. ___ In genetics recessive genes are stronger than dominant genes.
2.___ Mendel’s law of segregation states that during meiosis genes and therefore chromosomes separate from each other and end up in different gametes.
3.___ The test cross will tell me whether a particular organism is Heterozygous dominant or Homozygous dominant.
4.___ A person with type A blood can receive type B blood during a transfusion.
5.___ In Snapdragons crossing two pink colored plants with each other will give me offspring in the ratio of: 2 Red, 1Pink and 1White.
6.___ Skin color occurs in at least 7 different shades. This type of inheritance is known as polygenic inheritance.
7.___ Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited disease that affects the kidneys.
8.___ A man has 6 fingers on each hand and 6 toes on each foot. His wife and daughter have the normal number of fingers and toes. Having extra fingers or toes is a dominant trait. The chance that their next child will have extra fingers and toes will be 75%.
Questions from Chapter 12 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
9. ___ If a trait is X-Linked it will occur more in females than in males.
10. ___ X inactivation refers to the fact that in females only 1 of her 2 X chromosomes in any particular cell is functional.
11. Nondisjunction refers to the fact that during meiosis chromosomes and therefore the genes on those chromosomes fail to separate causing some gametes to have both copies of a particular gene or chromosome and the other gamete with no copies of the gene or chromosome.
12. ___ Deletions, Duplications, Inversions and translocations are the results of changes in the structure of chromosomes. A duplication results when a chromosome has lost one its genes.
13. ___ When a person has Down Syndrome it means that they have 3 copies of chromosome pair # 21 instead of the normal 2.
14. ___ It is not possible for a colorblind male and a carrier female to have a colorblind daughter.
15. ___ Hemophilia is an inherited X-linked trait in which the blood fails to clot properly which results in prolonged bleeding and sometimes serious damage to muscles and joints.
16. ___ If a person has the sex chromosome combination XXY that person will be a male and suffer from the condition known as Klinefelter syndrome.
17. If a woman is missing one of her X chromosomes she will suffer from the condition known as Turner syndrome (X0)
18. ___ The human X chromosome contains about 1,100 genes and the human Y chromosome contains about 78 genes.
19. ___ A gene located on either the X chromosome or the Y chromosome is called a sex-linked gene.
20. ___ Linked genes refers to the fact that one chromosome can contain many genes, similar to the pearls on a necklace.
Questions from Chapter 13-The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
21. ___ Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria.
22. ___ In DNA the base A always pairs with the base G and the base C always pairs with the base T.
23. ___ Chargaff’s rule states that in DNA the amount of the base A is always equal in amount to the base T and the amount of the base G is always equal in amount to the base C. In other words, A=T and G=C.
24. ___ In DNA the 5’ end of the molecule always has an OH attached to it and the 3’ of the molecule always has a phosphate attached to it.
25. ___ If one side of the DNA molecule has the base sequence ATTGGCTTA then the other side must have the base sequence TAACCGAAT
26. ___ When DNA replicates itself we have what is called the leading strand and the lagging strand. The leading strand is laid down discontinuously as segments known as Okazaki fragments and the lagging strand is laid down continuously and nonstop.
27. ___ Genetic engineering refers to the fact we can insert genes from one organism into another organism and then that organism will begin to make the proteins that the gene codes for.
28. PCR is a technique that enables us to make many copies of DNA from just a small amount of DNA.
Questions from Chapter 14. Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein
29.___ The term Transcription means mRNA>>>Ribosome>>>Protein and the term Translation means DNA>>> mRNA.
30. ___ Look at the genetic code (codon table) in your text. The codons UCG and AGG both code for Serine.
31. ___ If one strand of the DNA molecule has the sequence AAA then the tRNA should also have the sequence AAA
32. ___ In 1902 the British physician Archibald Garrod postulated that the symptoms of an inherited disease reflect the inability to make a particular enzyme.
33. ___ The central dogma (rule) of protein synthesis can be summarized by the following simple diagram: DNA>>RNA>>Protein
34. ___ Introns are segments of DNA that do not code for amino acids.
35. ___ Exons are segments of DNA that do code for amino acids.
36. ___ Ribosomes are that part of the cell where translation of the genetic code takes place.
37. ___ Ribosomes are composed of 2 parts: The large subunit and the small subunit.
38. ___ If a particular sequence of mRNA is reading GGC but the first base (G) gets damaged and is replaced by an A then the changed code will now code for the amino acid Serine.
39. ___ In the inherited disease sickle cell anemia (also called sickle cell disease) the amino acid valine has replaced the amino acid glutamic acid causing the red blood cells to take on a sickle shape due to the protein hemoglobin now being defective.
40. ___ Changes in the original sequence of a DNA molecule are known as Mutations.